Millipedes are myriapods, meaning 'many pairs of legs'. They survive over much of the country and evolved from ancestors that were the first creatures
to make the move from water to land millions of years ago. Australia is home to approximately 2000 species, most of which are nocturnal.
Millipedes are most common in areas with a milder climate and plenty of moisture. They are common under rocks and logs, in leaf litter and soil and under the bark of trees.
Quite often, creatures that have a bad reputation are great helpers in the garden. Millipedes are typically blind herbivores, living in the leaf litter and scavenging on almost anything, including waste or rotting material. They are great garden buddies.
Having lots of short legs makes millipedes very slow, but they are very powerful burrowers. With the legs moving in a wave-like pattern, they easily force their way underground, head first. Due to their lack of speed, a millipede's main defence mechanism is to coil into a tight circle, protecting their legs inside their armoured body.
Many species also emit a poisonous liquid which can burn the exoskeleton of ants and other insect predators, and the skin and eyes of larger predators. This chemical is harmless to humans, although may cause irritation to your eyes. A millipede only uses this defence if you drop, pinch, or roughly handle them.
Millipedes in general are getting a bad reputation from the introduced pests that are invading houses across southern Australia in plague proportions. Portuguese Millipedes get into food, bedding and clothes, stain floors when squashed, stink and destroy backyard veggie gardens.
Did you know?
Millipedes are related to centipedes but neither are insects. Insects have three pairs of legs compared with the dozens to hundreds of pairs of centipedes and millipedes. Millipedes are sometimes confused with their many-legged relatives the centipede, but you can tell them apart if you look closely - centipedes have only one pair of legs on each body segment instead of the two pairs found in millipedes.
Worms have both male and female organs, but they still need another worm in order to reproduce. They lay eggs which hatch after about three weeks. Earthworms don’t have lungs, and instead breathe through their skin! Worms are made up almost entirely of water, and so they love to be in d..